This WP focuses on measurement of source conditions needed for effective modelling of convective plumes and their variation in space and time. This will be achieved through the quantitative assessment of physico-chemical parameters using the unprecedented synergy between measurements techniques (such as field, petro-geochemical, ground-based and satellite-based).
There are three sub-tasks each focusing on a different target but having strong interaction.
The first one deals with measurement of eruption conditions from sediment analysis and pyroclasts textures to lava flow heat and volume in order to better constrain the convection driven by air heating above the hot lava surface. This includes sediment analysis and pyroclasts textures from field measurements, lava flow heat and volume flux measurements and thermal modelling of lava flow.
The second sub-task focuses on volatile budget at the source and focus on the quantitative assessment of near-vent gas loading and dynamics. The gas phase plays a major role within volcanic plume dynamics, especially in the vicinity of the vent crater.
Finally, the third sub-task deals with ash-rich plume dynamics using coupled satellite and ground-based measurements, associated with convection modelling from the source to the atmosphere. Concentration and location of ash clouds, which represent a major threat, are still difficult to assess. Distal measurement from space borne sensors particularly must bring important constraints for the improvements of volcanic ash transport and dispersion models.